A well-constructed reference list serves to confirm that your research is valuable and up-to-date.

Citing the sources correctly is a guarantee that the references cited are taken into account when assessing the authors’ (and their organization’s) research.

The recommended number of references is at least 50 for review papers and at least 10 for original papers. At least 50% of the references should be to papers published in the last 5 years. Self-citations should not make up more than 10–20% of all references. At least 20% of the references should be to foreign sources.


References may include scientific papers, monographs, collections of papers, conference proceedings, electronic resources (with access dates), and patents.

As a rule, references should not include dissertations and dissertation abstracts (these references are may only be included if the results of the research have not yet been published, or have not been presented in sufficient detail).

References should not include textbooks, teaching aids, lecture notes, GOST standards and other normative documents, laws and regulations, as well as archival documents (if these sources still have to be included, they are cited in footnotes).

  • References are formatted as follows: A.A. Author, B.B. Author, C.C. Author, Title of article, Title of journal. 10 (2) (2005) 49-53.
  • Non-latin sources that have no translation into English are transliterated in the English-language reference list, with an approximate English translation given in square brackets. Sources are transliterated in accordance with the Library of Congress system (ALA-LC). (References are transliterated automatically once the manuscript is uploaded into the E-submission system).
  • References are given at the end of the text and in the order they appear in the text. Each reference number is enclosed in square brackets. The number of citations in the text should correspond to the number of sources in the reference list.
  • References to unpublished work are not allowed.

References to different types of sources should be formatted in accordance with the examples below.

CITATION EXAMPLE for St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal. Physics and Mathematics.

1. M.S. Anikeeva, M.Ya. Vinnichenko, D.A. Firsov, L.E. Vorobjev, A.A. Tonkikh, Optical absorption in quantum dots Ge/Si at different population densities of the dots states, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics. 4(158) (2012) 9–15.


One-volume book

2. Yu.P. Raiser, Gas discharge physics, second ed., Nauka, Moscow, 1992.

3. V.E. Privalov, A.E. Fotiadi, V.G. Shemanin, Lasers and ecological monitoring of the atmosphere, Lan, St. Petersburg, 2013.

Multi-volume book

4. L.D. Landau, E.M. Liefshitz, Theoretical physics, Vol. 3, Quantum mechanics, Nauka, Moscow, 1989.

Single-author paper

5. N.A. Kirichenko, Large-scale structures produced on metal surfaces by multiple laser pulses, Quantum Electronics, 39 (5) (2009) 442–448.

Paper with two or three authors

6. N.O. Vasetskaya, V.K. Ivanov, Radiative decays of doubly excited states of oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen ions, Optics and Spectroscopy, 105 (5) (2008) 726–731.

Paper with four or more authors

7. M.S. Anikeeva, M.Ya. Vinnichenko, D.A. Firsov, L.E. Vorobjev, A.A. Tonkikh, Optical absorption in quantum dots Ge/Si at different population densities of the dots states. St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal: Physics and Mathematics, 4 (158) (2012) 9–15.

Electronic resource

8. V.N. Gribov, Space–time description of the hadron interaction at high energies, Accessed March 28, 2013.

Paper in proceedings or collection

9. T.P. Liubimova, I.S. Faizrakhmanova, Chislennoe issledovanie vliyaniya begushhego magnitnogo polya na teplomassoperenos v zhidkoj zone [Numerical study of the influence of a traveling magnetic field on heat and mass transfer in the liquid zone], Hydrodynamics: Proceedings of Perm State University, Perm, Perm University Press, 11 (2004) 173–190.


10. D.B. Shumkova, Optimal'noe upravlenie v zadachah s neizvestnymi granicami i podvizhnymi istochnikami. Diss. kand. fiz.–mat. nauk [Optimal control of problems with undefined boundaries and mobile sources. Cand. phys. and math. sci. diss.], Perm, 2003.

Dissertation abstract

11. D.A. Tarkhov, Matematicheskoe modelirovanie fiziko–tehnicheskih ob’’ektov na osnove strukturnoj i parametricheskoj adaptacii iskusstvennyh nejronnyh setej. Diss. dokt. tekhn. nauk [Mathematical modeling of physical and technical objects on the basis of the structural and parametric adaptation of artificial neural networks. Dr. tech. sci. diss.], St. Petersburg, 2006.


12. N.I. Gorbunov, S.P. Varfolomeev, L.K. Dijkov, V.M. Marahonov, F.K. Medvedev, Fotoljuminescentnyj izluchatel', poluprovodnikovyj fotojelement i optron na ih osnove [Photoluminescent radiator, semiconductor photocell and optron based thereon], Russian Federation Patent, No. 2261502 (2005).