The article is devoted to problems of realization and application of optogenetic methods used to identify reasons of various diseases, to monitor the biochemical processes of cell activity and to study various organisms. The problems of delivery, embedding and monitoring the expression of opsin genes into the cell genome of interest have been considered. In the article, the parameters and properties of various opsins and also the main ways of achievement of precise optical control over cell using opsins were presented. The rules for choosing the parameters of a light beam and the features of its putting were pointed out. The characteristic properties of the different measurement technique and recording the experimental quantities were analyzed and given.