Implanable devices for optogenetic studies and stimulation of excitable tissue
The article deals with currently available implants used in optogenetic experiments on laboratory animals in vivo. We present a brief description of the optogenetic investigation stages. Various types of the implantable devices generating and recording signals in excitable tissues have been considered. The features of the control signal transduction inside living tissues were analyzed. We discussed the possibility of medical and biological use of optical fibers to excitable tissues stimulation. Then we proposed a device of an implantable optical electrode system for scanning and controlling the bioelectric parameters. The device can be used in medical diagnostics, prosthetics, myostimulation, neurostimulation and cardioacceleration, for instance, at the neurological and rehabilitation medical institutions. With this in mind an attempt will be made to make special combined microelectrode arrays to implant them into living tissue. The arrays should be able to change their profile according to the implantation-area contour and biophysical features of the substrate surface. It is necessary to provide a point generation and layer-by-layer scanning of excitation pulse through integration of individual microelectrode arrays into a single test-system.