The characteristics of the microelectronic dynamic operational p–i–nphotodetector have been analyzed. These features are determined by the interaction of volume effects with particles adsorbed on the SiO2 film surface. The temperature characteristics in the visible light irradiation regime, the anomalous characteristics of the temperature hysteresis, the processes in the adsorbed layer and the charge carriers’ transport through the potential barrier in the Si substrate bulk were considered. The photocurrent sensitivity of the device was found to depend nonlinearly on temperature. We proposed a theoretical model that related the processes of thermaland photo-generation of the charge carriers with the potential barrier parameters. The effects resulted from the formation of the surface charges were revealed. The optimal conditions and regimes for measuring the photocurrent were determined.