Genesis of potential structures for electron spectrography

Physical electronics

The article focuses on studies of spectrographic structures being useful for energy analysis of charged particles. These structures are electrostatic fields which possess a main feature of spatial separation of a secondary charged particles flow being analyzed, into some monoenergetic beams. The availability of similar charged particle trajectories in electrostatic fields is a necessary condition for realization of spectrographic mode. Such flow separation is typical not only for electrostatic fields with potentials being homogeneous functions in Euler sense, but also for other structures. A class of general homogeneous functions with logarithmical singularity has been considered. In these fields a similarity concept is obeyed approximately. A general analytical expression for the potential structures is given, and an evaluation criterion for breaking similar tracks is formulated. A technique for creating potential structures is presented; it allows building effective electrostatic spectrographs. The surfaces of equal potentials of some concrete realizations are presented. An outlook for the spectrographs use is discussed.